Thursday, 27 February 2014

Will Eating Oranges Kill Parasites?

Oranges are a popular and relatively
affordable fruit. It would be great if
claims that they kill parasites were
true. Image by Rosino: CC BY-SA 2.0
Have you read that oranges have antiparasitic properties, and that eating them can help keep parasites away? Is there any truth to this claim? It’s certainly true that many substances derived from plants are antiparasitic, so what’s the evidence for oranges?

Antiparasitic Oranges - The Science

A search for papers on the antiparasitic properties of oranges yields very little, but when I looked at orange essential oil and parasites, I found some research. Studies have used orange oil to treat parasites in fish, sheep, gerbils, and in the lab, but none (at least none that I could find) have used human subjects.

A study by Squires and colleagues investigated whether an orange oil emulsion would kill a roundworm parasite in gerbils and sheep. These researchers found that, at a high enough dosage, the treatment killed a significant number of the worms, suggesting that it might be useful in animal parasite control.

In contrast, in a 1990 Japanese study, “many essential oils were found to be nematocidal to the larvae of dog-roundworm, Toxocara canis,” but essential oil of oranges wasn’t one of the star examples. In the lab, only about a third of larvae were killed by orange oil, and only after 24 hours of exposure.

Hirazawa and colleagues studied whether plant essential oils could be used to kill a flatworm that infests puffer fish. They looked at caprylic acid (derived from palm and coconut oil, and human milk), orange oil, peppermint oil, and cinnamon oil, exposing the parasites to the oils in the lab. The researchers found that orange oil is the only one of the four that does not affect this parasite.

Other studies found orange oil to be ineffective at killing honey bee mites, and ineffective at killing kissing bugs, the vector of Chagas' disease. So it looks like orange oil may kill some parasites, under specific conditions, but it’s no panacea. The good news is that it does appear to be useful, if used properly, in the control of subterranean termites.

Oranges vs Orange Essential Oil

Essential oils are derived from plants using a distillation process. They are highly concentrated essences, and orange oil is generally made from the peel of the fruit. Obviously, eating an orange is very different from ingesting orange oil (and I’m not sure that this would be safe). I wonder how many oranges one would have to consume (including the peel) to get any benefit, assuming you had a parasite that they would kill.

I believe it’s safe to say that there is no convincing evidence that orange oil is a good way to keep parasites at bay, and there is no evidence at all for oranges.



Hirazawa, N., T. Ohtaka, and K. Hata. 2000. “Challenge trials on the anthelmintic effect of drugs and natural agents against the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi in the tiger puffer Takifugu rigripes.” Aquaculture, 188, 2000

Nakamura N., F. Kiuchi, Y.Tsuda et al. 1990 "Nematocidal and bursting activities of essential oils on the larvae of Toxocara canis." Shoyakugaku Zasshi: 44(3).

Squires J., J. Foster, D. Lindsay et al. 2010. "Efficacy of an orange oil emulsion as an anthelminticagainst Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and in sheep."  Am.Vet Parasitol. Aug 27;172(1-2):95-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.04.017. 

Thursday, 20 February 2014

The Rise and Fall of the Guinea Worm, Dracunculus medinensis

As of May 2013 there's a bounty on the Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in Nigeria. Anyone reporting a confirmed case of Guinea worm infection, or dracunculiasis, will receive a cash reward of N25,000, or about US158.00. This marks another milestone in the battle of humanity versus the Guinea worm that's been going on for thousands of years.
Even today, the only effective way to get rid
of a Guinea worm is to slowly wind it around a
stick. The process can take weeks.
 Public Health Image Library.

Fortunately for anyone hoping to claim the cash, a case of Guinea worm infection is fairly easy to recognize. A description from Persian physician Avicenna, written a thousand years ago, is as good as any we'd write today:
“A pustula first appears and swells up, but afterwards contracts down again to a mere bleb. ...the bleb perforates and dark red matter is continuously exuded. ...movement can be distinguished beneath the skin as though some living thing were there, and indeed... a worm is present... For the most part it is the legs that are involved...” (translation quoted in Hoeppli, Parasites and Parasitic Infections in Early Medicine and Science).

The Origin and Historic Range of the Guinea Worm

Guinea worm may be gone from Nigeria, and the bounty is part of an effort to prove that. In the last quarter century the parasite has been pushed back, and back, and back, to its last bridgehead in Sub-Saharan Africa north of the equator.

As recently as 80 years ago, however, the worm was a torment in present day Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan and India, throughout the Arabian Peninsula, and in much of the northern half of the African continent. In its heyday, about 120 million people lived in its range and were at risk of infection. More than three million people suffered this extremely painful, debilitating, and basically untreatable parasitic infection every year.

When Did the Guinea Worm First Infect Humans?

We don't know where the Guinea worm first infected a human. It's tempting to think that it evolved somewhere in Africa because similar parasites of other vertebrates occur in both the Americas and Australia, both of which, with Africa, were part of the supercontinent Gondwana 100 – 125 million years ago.

Whatever its origins, the earliest written records of dracunculiasis come from North Africa and the Middle East, with the area around the Red Sea being particularly notorious.

Early Records of Guinea Worm Disease

Early references to dracunculiasis are uncertain, as people referred to the disease by different names, wrote in ancient languages and described things in various ways. The Papyrus Ebers may contain the oldest written reference to D. medinensis: the Egyptian document is dated to about 1550 BC, but it's thought to contain information copied from texts that were from earlier dates, perhaps a thousand years earlier or more.

The reference in the Papyrus Ebers that scholars think relates to Guinea worm describes “a swelling... in any limb of a man... it goes and comes, piercing through the flesh which is under it...” (translation quoted in Hoeppli).

Others describe the parasite as well, some with various remedies for dracunculiasis, though writers were unsure exactly what they were dealing with. Even as late as the 1700s, scientists disagreed as to whether D. medinensis was a worm, a vein, a nerve, an abscess, or even a piece of plant material.

Everyone agreed on one thing however: the condition caused untold misery and hardship.

The widespread misery may have been enough to give the worm a lasting place in history and Western culture. One theory suggests the Guinea worm inspired the traditional medical symbol still used today - the rod of Asclepius, which features a serpent wound around a stick.

Dracunculus medinensis may also be the “fiery serpent” that inhabited the land around the Red Sea – the serpent that bit and killed so many of the Children of Israel in the Old Testament book of Numbers.

Guinea Worm's Spread and Retreat

Step wells in South Central Asia were built to allow water
levels to change drastically. People walked right into the
water to access it. Wells like this one supplied many people
and encouraged the spread of Guinea worm.
 Image by Chetan. CC BY-SA 3.0

How this fiery serpent spread so far and wide is clear once one understands the Guinea worm's life cycle: it relies upon a dry environment where relatively few sources of water draw people together to drink, wash, and sooth their excruciating Guinea worm lesions in cool water. There also the intermediate host, a tiny crustacean, flourishes; it eats the worm's larvae and in turn is swallowed by thirsty humans, who may then move on to some other locale, some other waterhole.

How the fiery serpent has been driven back is also clear once one understands that two things will break the life cycle: people with Guinea worm lesions must not immerse their lesions in drinking water, and people who take drinking water from ponds and wells that might harbour the parasite must filter out the tiny water crustaceans before drinking.

Extinction of the Guinea Worm

Since the 1930s, cultural changes, chemical treatment of water sources, health education, and simple water filtration have had the worm in retreat from the north and east of its range. A Guinea worm eradication program, spearheaded by the Carter Center and in progress since 1984, has now pushed the parasite to near extinction. Less than 600 cases were reported in 2012, most of them in the African country of South Sudan. It's virtually certain that the story of the dreadful Guinea worm is about to end, forever.


Beaver, Paul Chester; Jung, Rodney Clifton et al. Clinical Parasitology 9th ed. (1984). Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.

WHO Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and Eradication of Dracunculiasis, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Guinea Worm Wrap-Up #216." (Jan 17, 2013). Accessed June 19, 2013.

Drisdelle, Rosemary. Parasites: Tales of Humanity's Most Unwelcome Guests. (2010). University of California Press.

Hoeppli, R. Parasites and Parasitic Infections in Early Medicine and Science. (1959). University of Malaya Press.

Premium Times. Nigeria Seeks Support on Guinea Worm Eradication. (May 17, 2013). Accessed May 21, 2013.

The Carter Center. "Guinea Worm Disease Eradication." Accessed May 22, 2013.

Friday, 14 February 2014

Symptoms of Elephantiasis (Lymphatic Filariasis)

“Elephantiasis… drew the attention of the physicians and laymen from early times on account of the often grotesque and horrible disfigurement of the patient” (Hoeppli, 33).

Lymphatic filariasis, or elephantiasis, is one of those diseases that manages to convey both its best known symptom and its special horror in a single word: its common name. Elephantiasis. Limbs as thick and gnarled as three trunks, a scrotum so enlarged that it has to be carried around in a wheelbarrow, dreadfully swollen heavy breasts.

That’s what elephantiasis is, but when it’s caused by parasites – worms living in the lymph vessels – the underlying infection is lymphatic filariasis. This is a disease of the tropics: Africa, much of Asia, Australia and islands in the Pacific, even parts of South America and the Caribbean. It is transmitted by mosquitoes.

This map shows areas of the world where lymphatic filariasis had a
severe impact in 2004. The darker the colour, the greater the impact.
Map by Lokal_Profil CC BY-SA 2.0

Asymptomatic Lymphatic Filariasis

Many people who harbour filarial worms never have any symptoms. Fetal exposure to the worm antigens in infected women appears to result in some level of tolerance in children.

It’s thought that elephantiasis only develops after many years and repeated infection; thus, though children are infected at an early age in areas where the disease is found, symptomatic lymphatic filariasis is a disease of adults.

Acute Lymphatic Filariasis

Researchers are not sure what causes an asymptomatic infection to progress to inflammation of the lymph vessels and lymph nodes, fever and chills, and swelling of tender affected limbs. It may be the death of the adult worms, which live for perhaps a decade. At this stage, bacteria are present in inflamed tissues, and these may originate from the victims skin or from the worms themselves: filarial worms are known to carry symbiotic bacteria that the human immune system reacts to.

The acute phase often also brings enlargement and inflammation of the testes, however symptoms typically subside in about a week.


The slide toward elephantiasis begins when the lymph vessels become enlarged and blocked as a result of the presence of adult worms. Lymph accumulates in the tissues instead of flowing through the vessels back to the bloodstream, and permanent swelling occurs with thickening and folding of the skin. Scar tissue forms, the urine becomes milky with lymph fluid, and bacterial infection is common.

Interestingly, when visitors to an affected region acquire the infection the immune response is different because they have not been exposed since infancy. For these people, symptoms may include inflammation of the lymphatic system that waxes and wanes over many years.

Roberts and Janovy point out that the name elephantiasis is nonsense, since it literally means “a disease caused by elephants!” I suppose, however, that if it seemed like you were turning into an elephant, the name would seem about right.

Further reading:

Hoeppli, R. Parasites and Parasitic Infections in Early Medicine and Science. University of Maylaya Press, 1959.

Hotez, Peter J. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases. Washington: ASM Press, 2008, 39 – 47.

Roberts, Larry S., and John Janovy Jr. Gerald D. Schmidt & Larry S. Roberts’ Foundations of Parasitology 8th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2009, 463 - 468.