Thursday, 27 July 2017

Trypanosoma cruzi - A Parasite in the Blood Supply

Blood donation is now infamous for transmitting infectious diseases: HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C are the best-known offenders and the blood supply is screened for these viruses. American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is caused by a parasite, and it, too, can be transmitted through organ or blood donation, so we can add Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease, to our list of concerns.
How do You Get American trypanosomiasis?
Triatoma infestans is
the best known of the
kissing bugs.
Image by Bärbel Stock;
CC BY-SA 3.0
Chagas disease usually starts with an insect bite: the reduviid bug, also known as the triatomid bug, or kissing bug, bites a human and takes a blood meal. As blood goes in at the mouth end, the bug defecates at the opposite end, leaving a fecal droplet full of infectious T. cruzi parasites on the skin. Later, when the bite itches and the victim scratches, the tiny parasites are rubbed into the wound and gain access to the tissues under the surface of the skin.
The parasites enter fat and muscle cells and multiply, eventually being released into the blood and thus distributed throughout the body. In time, they become quite rare in the blood but continue to live and multiply in organs indefinitely. Should another hungry reduviid bug feed on the host, there are enough T. cruzi trypanosomes circulating to pass the parasite to the bug, and subsequently to another human. Parasites present in donor blood and donated organs will also thrive in their new host.​
Symptoms of American Trypanosomiasis
Early symptoms of Chagas disease include a painful swelling at the site of the bite, swollen lymph nodes, high fever, aching muscles, enlarged liver, rash, inflammation of the heart and swelling of the face and extremities. This stage of the disease is often severe and dangerous in small children, while symptoms in victims over five years of age are generally milder and progress to a more prolonged, often asymptomatic though still destructive, form of the disease. 
In chronic Chagas disease, there is organ damage, particularly enlargement of the heart with gradual loss of function, and enlargement of the esophagus (megaesophagus) and colon (megacolon) leading to loss of function in the digestive tract. The severity of disease varies from person to person, and from one geographic area to another – when the heart and/or digestive system damage are severe enough, the patient dies.
Chagas Disease Distribution
The WHO estimates that between 6 and 7 million people are infected with T. cruzi. Most of them are in South and Central America, with about 12,000 deaths attributed to the parasite annually. 


Global distribution of Chagas disease. The red area shows where the disease is frequently transmitted by the kissing bug. In the blue area, occasional transmission occurs. In red, blue, and green areas, the disease is also transmitted from mother to fetus, and through blood or organ donation. Derived from a United Nations map.
 

With increasing migration of people from endemic areas, incidences of Chagas disease acquired through blood transfusion or organ transplant are increasing, and there is evidence that reduviid bugs in North America are carrying and transmitting the parasite. Thus, Chagas disease has become a matter for concern – an emerging disease – in North America, and both blood and organ donors are now being selectively screened for T.cruzi in both the United States and Canada.

Further reading on Chagas disease

Trypanosoma cruzi may owe its success in humans to the domestication of the guinea pig. I wrote about this in my book Parasites: Tales of Humanity's Most Unwelcome Guests.

PAHO/WHO. “ChagasDisease.” Accessed March 29, 2017. 
Schmidt, Gerald D. and Larry S. Roberts. Foundations of Parasitology 8th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2009.

19 comments:

  1. It was during my research on HIV/Herpes that I stumbled upon the Hiv/Herpes information; information which is quite easy to find when doing a search for STD on google. I was into conspiracy at the time thought of HIV/Herpes Cured' being a conspiracy was something Ignorance though,I found pretty interesting about herbal medicine. I asked questions about the Herbal cure's on official HIV/Herpes websites and I was banned for doing so by moderators who told me that I was parroting Hiv/Herpes propaganda. This reinforced my belief that there is a cure for Hiv/Herpes Then i found a lady from germany name Achima Abelard Dr Itua Cure her Hiv so I send him a mail about my situation then talk more about it and send me his herbal medicine I drank for two weeks.And today I'm Cured no Hiv/Herpes in my life,I searched for Hiv/Herpes groups to attempt to make contact with people in order to learn more about Hiv/Herpes Herbal Cure's I believed at this time that you with the same disease this information is helpful to you and I wanted to do the best I could to spread this information in the hopes of helping other people.That Dr Itua Herbal Medicine makes me believes there is a hope for people suffering from,Parkinson's disease,Schizophrenia,Cancer,Scoliosis,Fibromyalgia,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.Fatal Familial Insomnia Factor V Leiden Mutation ,Epilepsy Dupuytren's disease,Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor Diabetes ,Coeliac disease,Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease,Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Ataxia,Arthritis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Alzheimer's disease,Adrenocortical carcinoma.Asthma,Allergic diseases.Hiv_ Aids,Herpes,Inflammatory bowel disease ,Copd,Diabetes,Hepatitis,I read about him online how he cure Tasha and Tara,Conley,Mckinney and many more suffrin from all kind of disease so i contacted him . He's a herbal doctor with a unique heart of God, Contact Emal..drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Phone or whatsapp..+2348149277967.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. HOW I GOT CURE TO MY HERPES WITH THE HELP OF DR EBAKO NATURAL HERBS CURE WHATSAPP HIM ON +1 (213) 861-9461


      I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on sites of how DR EBAKO prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email: doctorebakospellhome@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +1 (213) 861-9461 or http://drebakocurehome.over-blog.com

      he can also cure you from
      HPV
      HIV
      HIV2
      Hepatitis B
      Diabetes
      etc











      HOW I GOT CURE TO MY HERPES WITH THE HELP OF DR EBAKO NATURAL HERBS CURE WHATSAPP HIM ON +1 (213) 861-9461


      I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on sites of how DR EBAKO prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email: doctorebakospellhome@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +1 (213) 861-9461 or http://drebakocurehome.over-blog.com

      he can also cure you from
      HPV
      HIV
      HIV2
      Hepatitis B
      Diabetes
      etc

      Delete
    2. [HOW I GOT CURED FROM GENITAL HERPES VIRUS )
      I was diagnosed with GENITAL HERPES VIRUS , my doctor told me it has no permanent cure, this virus affected me so badly that i was so ashamed of my self, this continued until a friend of mine Anna told me about Dr NANA from west Africa who cured her mother from GENITAL HERPES VIRUS, I contacted this herbal doctor and he sent me the herbal medicine through courier service, when i received it i applied it for 2 week with the instruction and i was totally cured from GENITAL HERPES VIRUS permanently within 7 to 8 days of usage. if you are passing through the same problem you can contact him via his email you should know about his natural herbal treatment, Dr NANA email is been attached to my post reach him for help. add him on Email at drnanasolutionhome@gmail.com or whatsapp line or call +2347014784614.
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      [HOW I GOT CURED FROM GENITAL HERPES VIRUS )
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    4. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have go to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr ohunyom, in the net from a lady called Angela i contacted him and he reassured me with him herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally fee from #Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR ohunyom for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email drohunyom@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2349060579973..
      He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine:
      1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT  

      Delete
    5. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have go to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr ohunyom, in the net from a lady called Angela i contacted him and he reassured me with him herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally fee from #Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR ohunyom for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email drohunyom@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2349060579973..
      He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine:
      1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT  

      Delete
    6. The doctors said Herpes virus do not have medical cure because the virus is capable of hiding within the human cells, it remains protected from your immune system. Herpes isn’t a special virus – your immune system has the tools to fight it back. But because it is able to lay dormant in protected cells, your immune system is unable to remove it from your body,But with strong reactive herbal medication is capable of getting rid of the virus gradually and totally from your body without damaging any of your cells,natural herbs kills the virus totally not just reducing the out break. Get natural herbs cure Email DR. VOODOO at voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com Add Dr voodoo on whatsApp +2348140120719

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  2. I have being on blog Sites for a while now and today I felt like I should share my story because I was a victim too. I had HIV for 6 years and i never thought I would ever get a cure I had and this made it impossible for me to get married to the man I was supposed to get married to even after 2 years of relationship he broke up with me when he finds out I was HIV positive. So I got to know about Dr. Itua on Blog Site who treated someone and the person shared a story of how she got a cured and let her contact details, I contacted Dr. Itua and he actually confirmed it and I decided to give a try too and use his herbal medicine that was how my burden ended completely. My son will be 2 soon and I am grateful to God and thankful to his medicine too.Dr Itua Can As Well Cure The Following Disease… Cancer, HIV, Herpes, Hepatitis B, Liver Inflammatory,Diabetes,Fibroid, Get Your Ex Back, If you have (A just reach him on drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com Or Whatsapp Number.+2348149277967)He can also advise you on how to handle some marital's issues. He's a good man.

    ReplyDelete
  3. If you have Herpes in your whole body such as fever blisters, hsv, or roofing shingles you know what it is like to stay with the pain and discomfort that herpes delivers. I don't need to tell you how awesome it would be to find something that works so well that you no longer need to fear about stress or outbreak,Dr Itua herbal medicine cure my herpes in two weeks of taking it.is genuine and natural herbal medicine it has no side effect, The reason I'm writing this is that I promised Dr Itua I will share his herbal work to the world to see Herpes is no more a big deal.also Dr Itua can as well cure the following diseases...HIV,Hsv 1/2,Hepatitis B,Cancer, Diabetes, Men/Woman Infertility, Scoliosis,Fibromyalgia,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity
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    ReplyDelete
  4. HOW I GOT CURE TO MY HERPES WITH THE HELP OF DR EBAKO NATURAL HERBS CURE WHATSAPP HIM ON +1 (213) 861-9461


    I can’t believe this. A great testimony that i must share to all HERPES patient in the world i never believed that their could be any complete cure for HERPES or any cure for HERPES,i saw people’s testimony on sites of how DR EBAKO prepare herbal cure and brought them back to life again. i had to try it too and you can,t believe that in just few weeks i started using it all my pains stop gradually and i had to leave without the HERPES DRUGS the doctor gave to me. Right now i can tell you that few months now i have not had any pain,delay in treatment leads to death. Here is his email: doctorebakospellhome@gmail.com his WHATSAPP number is +1 (213) 861-9461 or http://drebakocurehome.over-blog.com

    he can also cure you from
    HPV
    HIV
    HIV2
    Hepatitis B
    Diabetes
    etc

    ReplyDelete
  5. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr. Silver and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to Dr. Silver telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr. assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr. Silver (drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com) sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address ( drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  6. Do anyone still doubt natural herbs? I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. I wonder why people still spend their money on surgery, injections and drugs each time they are sick. Natural herbs can cure all kinds of illness including herpes, diabetics, asthma, HIV, hepatitis, etc. I've seen it with my own eyes. I was cured of cancer and my aunt and her husband were cured of herpes by Dr Udi who uses natural herbs to cure different kind of illness. Even Dr.Udi proved to the whole world countless times that natural herbs can cure all diseases and he cured countless of people using natural herbs. I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm in trying herbs it will only get you cured from what you being so why don't you give herbs a try and see it effectiveness Contact or email Dr Udi (Drudiherbalhome@gmail.com) (phone/whatsap no): +2348051243538.
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    https://drudiherba.home.blog

    ReplyDelete
  7. You can contact Dr UDI for your penis enlargement Products you are indeed Worthy Dr Udi -what'sapp :+2348051243538. He is also specialize in cures of Sickness and Restoration Of Broken Marriages. 1. STD (sexual transmitted disease). 2. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)...3.Herpes/Hpv. 4.Hiv/ Diabetes and many others..   

    ReplyDelete
  8. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have go to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr ohunyom, in the net from a lady called Angela i contacted him and he reassured me with him herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally fee from #Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR ohunyom for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email drohunyom@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2349060579973..
    He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine:
    1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT  

    ReplyDelete
  9. FINALLY FREE FROM HERPES VIRUS
    I thought my life had nothing to offer anymore because life became meaningless to me because I had Herpes virus, the symptoms became very severe and bold and made my family run from and abandoned me so they won't get infected. I gave up everything, my hope, dreams,vision and job because the doctor told me there's no cure. I consumed so many drugs but they never cured me but hid the symptoms inside me making it worse. I was doing some research online someday when I came across testimonies of some people of how DR ADIGBA cured them from Herpes, I never believed at first and thought it was a joke but later decided to contact him on the details provided and when I messaged him we talked and he sent me his herbal medicine and told me to go for a test after two weeks. Within 7 days of medication the symptoms disappeared and when I went for a test Lo and behold I was NEGATIVE by the Doctor Who tested me earlier. Thank you DR ADIGBA because I forever owe you my life and I'll keep on telling the world about you. If you are going through same situation worry no more and contact DR ADIGBA via dradigba@gmail. com or WhatsApp him via +2348077875210. he is good too to cure all type of disease and virus.
    1 HIV cure
    2 cancer
    3 diabetes
    4 hepatitis
    5 herpes.
    You can contact if you are having any problem...

    ReplyDelete
  10. I’m from USA am here to give my testimony about Dr Voke who helped me cure my HERPES (HSV), i want to inform the public how i was cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS), i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. Three months ago a friend suggested that I try herbal medicine; from a very powerful herbal doctor called (doctorvoke@gmail.com) I looked up his blog on the internet site and indeed he have had immense success with his product. There were lot of persons posting their testimony about how he cured them. when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, my HERPES result just came out negative. (doctorvoke@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete

  11. I actually was told otherwise, that the herpes can not be treated and that there is no way to make it go away once you have it. But I decided to do my own research and found out it is possible to fight it.. I got a lot of information about it here in forums and online,I got Dr Oduku contact on a group were a man from Cordova was sharing his testimony of how he cured him of herpes so I decided to give him a try I emailed him through odukuherbalremedies@gmail.com. he called me to know if I actually wanted the cured after which the cure was sent to me few days later I was surprised when the same doctor who told me that I was diagnosed of herpes told me that I was completely free from herpes you can reach him through his email odukuherbalremedies@gmail.com. or through his WhatsApp +2349064430408 if you are diagnosed and also wanna be free from this deadly virus because he is really gonna be of great help to you!!

    ReplyDelete
  12. HELLO EVERYONE.. FEW MUNINETS TO REDY THIS INFOR ON HERPES CURE 2018..
    2017 MY MOTHER WAS DIAGNOSED OF HERPES/ KNOWN AS GENITAL WARTS ,I SPENT A LOT OF MONEY ON HER MEDICATION TILL A POINT I EVEN LOST HOPE,BECAUSE MY MOTHER WAS GRADUALLY DYING AND LOST HER MEMORY TOO, I WAS SO DESPERATE TO GET MY MOTHER BACK TO NORMAL, ONE DAY MY UNCLE WHO LIVES IN LONDON UNITED KINGDOM TOLD ME ABOUT DR OLIHA ,WHO HELPED HIM GET RID OF HERPES /GENITAL WART WITH HERBAL MEDICINE AND HIS HERBAL SOAP ,I WAS SO SHOCKED WHEN HE TOLD ME ABOUT THIS ,ALTHOUGH I NEVER BELIEVE IN HERB BUT, I KEEP TO BELIEVE BECAUSE MY UNCLE CAN'T TELL ME LIES WHEN IT COMES TO HEALTH CONDITION I CONTACTED DR OLIHA VIA HIS EMAIL; OLIHA.MIRACLEMEDICINE@GMAIL.COM , YOU CAN TALK TO HIM VIA CALL OR WHATSAPP MESSENGER ON +2349038382931 , HE REPLIED AND ASK ME TO SEND MY HOME ADDRESS AND MY MOTHER'S DETAIL AND THEN I PURCHASED THE HERBAL MEDICINE,SENT ME THE HERBAL MEDICINE THROUGH COURIER SERVICE, WHEN I RECEIVED THIS HERBAL MEDICINE USED IT FOR 2 WEEKS, AND 4 DAYS OF USAGE THE WARTS FELL OFF, MY MOTHER I NOW TOTALLY CURED AND MY MOTHER IS LIVING FREE AND HAPPY AGAIN. YOU CAN TALK TO DR VIA HIS MOBILE NUMBER OR WHATS APP HIM ON +2349038382931 or website i saw on the :https://olihamiraclemedicine.webs.com/    ALL THANKS TO DOCTOR DR OLIHA  

    ReplyDelete
  13. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him: +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete